2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death. – PubMed – NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21739343

2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is reported to cause rapid loss of weight, but unfortunately is associated with an unacceptably high rate of significant adverse effects. DNP is sold mostly over the internet under a number of different names as a weight loss/slimming aid. It causes uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation; the classic symptom complex associated with toxicity of phenol-based products such as DNP is a combination of hyperthermia, tachycardia, diaphoresis and tachypnoea, eventually leading to death. Fatalities related to exposure to DNP have been reported since the turn of the twentieth century. To date, there have been 62 published deaths in the medical literature attributed to DNP. In this review, we will describe the pattern and pathophysiology of DNP toxicity and summarise the previous fatalities associated with exposure to DNP.

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Rachael Cook, 25, suffered a cardiac arrest after taking dinitrophenol (DNP)

Slimmer, 25, died after taking controversial ‘rat poison’ diet pill because she was worried she had eaten too much at her birthday dinner
She bought the substance online because she thought losing weight would help her get pregnant, inquest told
She died three days after her birthday, after fearing she had eaten too much at an all-you-can eat celebratory dinner
Doctor tells hearing of drug, ‘you may as well be taking rat poison’

A woman died after taking a controversial diet pill described by one doctor as ‘rat poison’ after worrying that she had eaten too much at her birthday dinner, an inquest heard.

Rachael Cook, 25, from Worthing, West Sussex, had been trying for a baby with her boyfriend and bought the dinitrophenol (DNP) online after being told if she lost weight, it might help her conceive.

An inquest into her death heard how Miss Cook died from a cardiac arrest three days after her birthday, having taken the substance because she feared she had eaten too much at a celebratory trip to an all-you-can eat buffet.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3360973/Slimmer-25-died-taking-controversial-rat-poison-diet-pill-worried-eaten-birthday-dinner.html#ixzz4neRAfB9t
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A letter from guest

You say it’s dangerous and then show them how to buy AND USE a drug that has 62 published deaths in the medical literature. You should be sued if one person dies because of this website. One person = one mother, father, grandparents, children, cousins, fiance, girlfriend, boyfriend. You are hurting people with this website and you have a responsibility to take it down. If you don’t, and someone dies, you are at fault. Just because you don’t have a knife doesn’t mean you didn’t commit murder. Gurndingh J. 2,4-dinitorphenol(DNP): a weight loss agent with signficant acut toxicity and risk of DEATH. J Med Toxicol 2011;(3):205-12.

Answer from site admin:
Dear guest! I tried to answer to email you have provided, but this address wasn’t registered in the system, so I’ll just write here.

You are right, but do you really think that closing one site will help saving peoples lives? All I do is provide information on taking DNP the SAFEST way (which is risky anyway).
What most dangerous for people is not knowing, or knowing wrong about how to take this substance.
If you see any adversary content – just let me know, I’ll delete it. This web site is open for any new articles, how about you write some?

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Just click “Contact me” link in top-left corner of the screen!

I’ll post your experience ASAP!

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DNP and Diet Composition for Bodybuilders and Athletes

DNP AND DIET COMPOSITION

 

DNP does not interact directly with any macro- or micronutrients, and so, theoretically, can be used in conjunction with any diet plan imaginable.

 

Virtually all bodybuilders and athletes who use DNP, however, do so with the same goal: rapid fat loss, with minimal catabolism of muscle protein.  For these athletes, a few key points are essential.

 

PROTEIN INTAKE

 

Although DNP is surprisingly protein-sparing, the best way to spare muscle protein is also the most obvious way—namely, to eat enough of it.

Athletes should be sure to consume at least 1 to 1.5 grams of protein per pound (= 2 to 3 grams per kg) of bodyweight, regardless of the other particulars of their diet.

 

 

EFFECT OF GLYCOGEN DEPLETION

 

As mentioned on the workout page, muscle glycogen depletion shifts the body’s metabolic balance toward lipolysis (fat burning).  Therefore, preparatory glycogen depletion—done before DNP supplementation is begun—is highly advisable, especially for athletes who are already lean.

 

If glycogen is depleted:

In this case, a low-carbohydrate diet will produce maximum fat loss, with the bonus of causing minimal physical discomfort (see below).  If carbohydrate cravings occur, stimulants with an appetite-suppressant effect, such as ephedrine or caffeine, may be helpful in combating them.

– For athletes with substantial experience in low-carbohydrate dieting, these cravings may be less intense, or even absent altogether.

– Carbohydrate cravings that persist through the use of stimulants may be a sign that liver glycogen is depleted.  In this case, consuming 5 to 15 grams of fructose—which will refill liver glycogen without affecting muscle glycogen—should reduce the intensity of the cravings.  Powdered fructose, which can be added to any drink as a sweetener, is ideal.  If this is not available, the next-best option is apples or pears, which have the highest ratio of fructose to glucose of all common fruits.

 

If glycogen is not depleted:

In this case, the body’s metabolic balance is not shifted as far toward lipolysis (fat burning).  As a result, greater metabolism of both carbohydrates and protein will occur by default.

– If glycogen is not depleted, the athlete’s diet should not be too low in carbohydrates.  If significant glycogen remains in muscle tissue, a carbohydrate intake of less than approximately 1 g/kg (about 0.5 g/lb) of bodyweight may place the athlete at risk for protein catabolism.  In this case the body may also deplete blood glucose, placing the athlete at risk for hypoglycemia as well.

– Sufficient protein (see above) will mostly guard against muscle loss, provided that a minimum of carbohydrate is consumed as described above.

– Carbohydrate should come mostly from high-glycemic-index (“slow carb”) foods.  This will help the athlete avoid dangerous swings in blood glucose levels as well as the discomfort of excessive heat wasting (see below).

 

PHYSICAL EFFECTS

 

Apart from the considerations above, DNP allows considerable flexibility in the athlete’s diet.  Among the other factors to be considered, perhaps the most important is DNP’s “heat wasting” effect.

 

As described on the chemistry page, DNP does not disrupt glucose metabolism; instead, it causes much of the energy from glucose to be thrown off as heat.  As a result, any rapid infusion of glucose into cells will accelerate the rate of heat wasting.  Simply put, the consumption of sugars or other “fast” carbohydrates (white rice, refined flour, etc.) will raise heat output significantly.

 

At lower doses of DNP, then, there are no inherent restrictions on the athlete’s carbohydrate consumption, other than the athlete’s own ability to tolerate the extra heat, sweating, and discomfort.  At higher doses, on the other hand, carbohydrate consumption should be monitored carefully to mitigate the risk of hyperthermia.

 

 

Dosing for DNP is discussed here.

 

Learn about the chemistry and action of DNP here.

 

Information on stacking DNP with other fat burners is here.

 

Click here to read more about DNP and calorie consumption.

 

Read about workouts to preserve lean mass here.

 

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DNP and Calorie Consumption

If you’re reading this page, you already know that DNP causes a radical increase in the body’s consumption of calories.  (Click here to learn how.)

 

First, some numbers.  It has been estimated that approximately 1 mg/kg bodyweight/day of DNP increases calorie consumption by about 10%.  So, for instance, an 80-kg athlete taking 400 milligrams of DNP per day might expect an increase of 800/40 x 10% = 50% in his or her rate of metabolism.  That’s 50% more calories burned!

 

Compared to other pro-lipolytic (fat burning) compounds, there’s no contest.  The ephedrine/caffeine stack (“ECA”) increases metabolism by only 1 to 3 percent.  Even high doses of clenbuterol (“clen”) cause only a 10% increase, which can only be sustained for a couple of weeks.  Used responsibly, DNP can be several times as effective as these more commonly used fat burners.

 

But the difference doesn’t stop there.

 

The other fat burners used by bodybuilders (ECA, clen) work by binding to various neurochemical receptors.  Simply put, ECA and clen trigger the production of more energy—but that energy is produced just as efficiently as usual.  Because the energy production process isn’t affected, there’s no change in the calorie requirement for physical activities, either.  In short, ECA and clen effectively add a few calories to an athlete’s energy expenditure, but they don’t multiply that expenditure by anything.

 

DNP, on the other hand, doesn’t add to an athlete’s energy consumption.  DNP multiplies an athlete’s consumption of energy—for everything.

 

Say an athlete performs enough cardio to burn 300 extra calories (over and above base metabolism) under “normal” conditions.

– With supplemental ECA or clenbuterol, this activity will still burn only 300 extra calories.

– With supplemental DNP, the same activity burns MORE calories.  If the dose of DNP is sufficient to produce a 20% increase in metabolism, the activity will now burn 360 extra calories, over and above the original increase provided by DNP.  If the dose provides a 50% increase, the activity will burn 450 extra calories.  And so on.

 

Thus, once the caloric effect of DNP has been calibrated for a particular bodybuilder or athlete, the same multiplier applies to all physical activity that he or she performs.  Even relatively easy activities, such as walking, can contribute significantly to the athlete’s energy deficit.

 

Incidentally, this is also the reason why high-dose “inferno” treatment with DNP is generally a bad idea, as also mentioned on the dosing page.  At such high doses, DNP will cause so much fatigue that even everyday activities will become difficult to perform.  Athletes may find it exhausting just to walk a few blocks, let alone to work out hard enough to retain muscle (click here (LINK TO WORKOUT PAGE for more on preserving muscle on DNP).  By sticking with a more moderate DNP dosage and supplementing it with some easy, low-intensity cardio activity, athletes can achieve the same calorie burn as from higher doses, but with less debilitating fatigue, less risk of muscle loss, and, most importantly, a much lower risk of hyperthermia or other toxic effects.

 

 

 

Dosing for DNP is discussed here.

 

Learn about the chemistry and action of DNP here.

 

Information on stacking DNP with other fat burners is here.

 

To read more about the effects of DNP on different bodybuilding diets, click here.

 

Read about workouts to preserve lean mass here.

 

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How DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol) Works

In technical terms, DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol) is a “classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation”.  It works in the mitochondria, the structures that serve as “powerhouses” of all animal cells.

 

In the presence of oxygen, cells consume glucose.  Within the inner membrane of each mitochondrion, the resulting molecules are processed through a series of reactions known as the Krebs cycle.  The products of this cycle cause protons (H+) to diffuse through the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, from within the membrane out into the “matrix” (outer region) of the mitochondrion.  As a result, a “chemiosmotic gradient”—similar to an electric potential—is produced.  To relieve this gradient, the protons are allowed to drift back through the inner mitochondrial membrane.

 

Normally, the only re-entry point for these protons is through an enzyme known as ATP synthase.  When a proton passes through ATP synthase, its energy is used to drive the creation of ATP—the “fuel” of all living cells.  Thus, if the membrane is working properly, this drift of protons ensures a steady supply of fuel for the body.

 

Now, enter 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) into the picture.

When DNP is present in the cell, it serves as a “protonophore”: it is able to shuttle protons back into the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.  As a result, the protons are able to bypass the action of ATP synthase and simply diffuse back inside the inner membrane.  Their energy is not tapped to produce ATP, nor is it used to provide energy for the cell in any other way.  It is simply “wasted” as radiated heat.

 

This heat, incidentally, accounts for the danger posed by acute overdoses of DNP.  The body has no natural feedback cycle by which to counteract it, and it increases in proportion to the dosage of DNP administered.  Therefore, an acute overdose of DNP can cause dangerous hyperthermia.

 

Although DNP is a synthetic chemical, there are natural molecules that act as uncouplers in essentially the same way.  For instance, the “brown fat” of newborn infants, and the fat of hibernating animals, contain “uncoupling proteins” that produce excess heat in the same way as DNP.  As a result, newborns and hibernating animals are protected from hypothermia, to which both would otherwise be extremely vulnerable.

 

Importantly, DNP does not disrupt any other step in the process of respiration and oxygen consumption.  By allowing protons to bypass ATP synthase, DNP makes respiration much less efficient; it also increases oxygen consumption, in much the same way as would cardio exercise.  But it leaves the respiratory chain intact.

 

Dosing for DNP is discussed here.

 

Information on stacking DNP with other fat burners is here.

 

Click here to read more about DNP and calorie consumption.

 

To read more about the effects of DNP on different bodybuilding diets, click here.

 

Read about workouts to preserve lean mass here.

 

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Weight Training to Preserve Muscle on DNP

One of the DNP’s greatest advantages is its protein-sparing effect; that is, it helps to preserve lean muscle while body fat is burned.

 

This effect is not pure magic, though.  Though perhaps to a lesser extent than other weight-loss tactics, DNP use can still lead to the loss of lean mass if a proper diet and workout routine are not followed.

 

The dietary component is simple: Eat enough protein.  Athletes who consume at least 3 g/day * bodyweight in kg (1.35 g/day * bodyweight in pounds) of protein are unlikely to lose significant lean mass while on DNP.  For a 200-pound bodybuilder, that’s approximately 270 grams of protein a day.

 

The best—and worst—workout routines for DNP users may be a bit more surprising.

 

DO: High reps, low weight BEFORE using DNP

The best way for an athlete to prepare the body for a DNP cycle is glycogen depletion, which shifts metabolism toward lipolysis (fat burning) and away from muscle catabolism.

Glycogen depletion is achieved most effectively by sets of 15 to 25 repetitions, at approximately half of the athlete’s one-rep maximum.  Even better than counting reps, athletes can use time under tension as a guide, performing sets that last 40 to 60 seconds.

To achieve sufficient glycogen depletion, atheles should perform at least 4-6 sets for major muscle groups and 2-3 sets for auxiliary muscle groups.

To avoid the undesirable consequences of high-rep training during a DNP cycle (see below), this type of workout should NOT be performed by athletes who are taking DNP.

 

DON’T: High reps, low weight while on DNP

This form of weight training, known more formally as “metabolic” weight training, has two primary benefits for athletes: greater calorie burn and glycogen depletion.  For DNP users, the first of these is a non-issue; the extra calorie burn is negligible compared to the effect of DNP.  The second (glycogen depletion) is most useful before DNP supplementation is begun, as discussed above.

Worse yet, this form of weight training may actively cause the loss of muscle.  “Metabolic” exercise signals hormones that lead to catabolism and breakdown of the fibers responsible for muscle size, while preserving the smaller “slow twitch” fibers.  (This is why endurance athletes have thin, sinewy muscles.)

 

DO: Lower reps, higher weight while on DNP

To preserve muscle when dieting, the best stimulus is the same one that builds muscle on a normal or bulking diet: low to medium reps (6-10 repetitions), at high intensity.

DNP users may find themselves unable to complete workouts of “normal” length, due to fatigue (especially if they are glycogen-depleted as discussed above).  In this case, users should decrease the number of sets, NOT the weight.  Decreasing the weight will lead to the undesirable effects of “metabolic” training as discussed above.

In general, 2-3 sets of 6-10 slow reps, stopping just short of failure, is optimal.  DO NOT perform sets to failure.  If at least 6 repetitions cannot be performed without failure, the weight is too heavy.  (If a set of 10 repetitions is nowhere near failure, the weight is too light.)

 

Dosing for DNP is discussed here.

 

Learn about the chemistry and action of DNP here.

 

Information on stacking DNP with other supplements is here.

 

Click here to read more about DNP and calorie consumption.

 

To read more about the effects of DNP on different bodybuilding diets, click here.

 

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Safe and Effective Dosing of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP)

To ensure safety, DNP must be dosed carefully and conservatively; an overdose can be fatal.  This in itself is far from unique—most drugs can be fatal if overdosed sufficiently—but DNP demands more caution than most other supplements, for two reasons.

 

First, DNP has a low “therapeutic index”.  That is, it can be lethal at doses only 3-4 times higher than the optimal therapeutic dose.  Overdosing must be avoided scrupulously.  Still, though perhaps frightening, this is not a unique danger of DNP.  (The same is true of ordinary alcohol: Lethal alcohol poisoning occurs at just a few times the intake required for a pleasant “buzz” of mild intoxication.)

 

Second—and important to keep in mind at all times—is that DNP dosing is cumulative: It remains in the body for several days after ingestion.  Small and moderate doses of DNP can, therefore, build up to the equivalent of much larger doses if the drug is used for a week or more.

 

How long the body takes to eliminate DNP has not been conclusively established.  Cumulative doses of DNP may vary widely from person to person, and may even differ significantly between bodyfat leels for the same individual.  “Cumulative dose tables” found on the Internet are based on an assumed half-life of 36 hours.  This figure is chosen essentially at random, and is NOT reliable!

 

Unfortunately, for any particular individual, there is no way to investigate the cumulative effects of DNP other than experimentation.  Always start with LOW doses of DNP, and ALWAYS err on the side of caution when making dosing decisions.

 

 

NEW USERS:

Users with no DNP experience should begin at a low dose—no more than 3 mg/day * bodyweight in kg (or approximately 1.35 mg/day * bodyweight in pounds).  For a user who weighs about 200 lbs (about 90 kg), a beginning dose should be no higher than about 270 mg/day, with 200-250 mg/day perhaps most appropriate.

 

The primary goal of new DNP users should be to investigate the cumulate effects of the drug.  New users of DNP, or users titrating to  a higher dose for the first time, should NEVER increase the dose during the first 5 to 7 days, as the drug still may not have reached its steady cumulative level by that point.

 

Ideally, the first DNP cycle for a new user should be entirely at this low dose.  Users should wait to increase the dose until later cycles.

 

EXPERIENCED USERS:

Once a user has calibrated the effects of a DNP dose over at least 5-7 days, the user can titrate the dose upward.  Doses should be titrated upward by as small an amount as possible.

After any dose increase—or after switching to DNP from a new source (since the potency of DNP varies widely from source to source)—users should follow the same precautions recommended above for new users, even if they have a substantial history of DNP use.

 

A NOTE ON MODERATION:

DNP is most effective—and least debilitating and/or uncomfortable—in small to moderate doses.  High-dose “inferno” cycles of DNP tend to be pointless or even counterproductive, since they inevitably lead to such extreme physical exhaustion that users are unable to perform even light cardio (or even normal activities of daily living).

Since DNP increases the calorie burn rate of ALL physical activity (as discussed here), the same degree of fat loss—without the same intense side effects—can be achieved by simply performing light cardio along with a moderate DNP dose.

 

Learn about the chemistry and action of DNP here.

 

Click here to read more about DNP and calorie consumption.

 

To read more about the effects of DNP on different bodybuilding diets, click here.

 

Information on stacking DNP with other fat burners is here.

 

Read about workouts to preserve lean mass here.

 

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DNP + Supplement “Stacks” for Optimal Effect

Taken alone, DNP is already capable of producing dramatic fat loss.  Losses of muscle and lean mass are minimal, too, especially if properly designed workouts are performed.

 

These effects, while already substantial, can be further enhanced in at least three different ways through strategic combinations of DNP and other supplements.

 

1/ 

FAT MOBILIZATION

The baseline protein-sparing and lipolytic (fat-burning) effects of DNP are already substantial, but can be augmented further by supplements that mobilize body fat for lipolysis.  Two kinds of supplements are ideal, with the choice depending on the user’s current level of body fat.

 

DNP + Clenbuterol (for males over 10% body fat, or females over 20% body fat):

Clenbuterol, a beta-2 adrenergic agonist, mobilizes stored body fat for lipolysis.  Taken with DNP, it can shift the body’s metabolic balance further toward lipolysis (fat burning), actively aiding the ability of DNP to burn stored fat.  In addition, studies show that clenbuterol itself has anti-catabolic and perhaps even anabolic effects, so the combination of DNP and clenbuterol is even more likely to allow the user to preserve lean muscle.

Clenbuterol does not mobilize “stubborn” fat stores (the last reserves of subcutaneous fat), for which lipolysis is instead modulated by alpha-2 adrenergic receptors.  Therefore, for users who are already quite lean (at most 10% body fat for males, 20% for females), clenbuterol will have a lesser effect on the fat loss caused by DNP.  For lean DNP users, yohimbine (see below) is a better choice.

The effect of clenbuterol on DNP and fat loss will be most pronounced if the clenbuterol is taken 30-60 minutes before light to moderate cardio exercise, under conditions of fasting or low carbohydrates.

 

DNP + Yohimbine (for males under 10% body fat, or females under 20% body fat):

Yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, allows for greater burning of the body’s “stubborn” fat stores.  If taken with DNP by a suitably lean athlete, it will mobilize the body’s last reserves of stored fat—usually in the abdomen and/or hips—and thus amplify the lipolytic effect of DNP.

Like clenbuterol, yohimbine is best taken 30-60 minutes before light to moderate exercise.  The optimum dose is approximately 0.2 mg multiplied by body weight in kg, or 0.1 mg multiplied by body weight in pounds).

The pro-lipolytic effect of yohimbine is completely abolished by insulin (produced by the body in response to carbohydrate intake).  Therefore, lean DNP users aiming for maximum fat loss MUST take yohimbine under conditions of fasting or extremely low carbohydrates.

 

2/

APPETITE SUPPRESSION

The metabolic acceleration caused by DNP can cause intense hunger, especially in the form of carbohydrate cravings.  Since DNP itself has no anorectic (appetite-suppressing) effects, supplemental appetite suppressants can be helpful.

 

DNP + Ephedrine + Caffeine (DNP + “EC stack”):

Many users find the combination of ephedrine and caffeine useful in curbing appetite and carbohydrate cravings.  The ephedrine/caffeine stack (in the ratio of 10mg caffeine per 1mg ephedrine) may thus be a useful adjunct to DNP, especially for athletes who are very lean and/or consuming a low-calorie/low-carbohydrate diet.  Bodybuilders in the contest preparation stage, in particular, often find the EC stack indispensable as an appetite suppressant.

The ephedrine/caffeine stack has thermogenic (fat burning) properties, but they are negligible compared to those of DNP.

 

Users taking prescription medicines with an anorectic effect (e.g., Adderall, dextroamphetaminc, bupropion) may find those medicines useful in keeping hunger and carbohydrate cravings at bay.

 

3/

ALERTNESS

The use of DNP has been compared by some to “24-hour-a-day cardio”, and not without reason: DNP increases the body’s base metabolic rate—around the clock—to the levels normally achieved by light to moderate aerobic exercise.  Just as spending all day walking would make one tired, DNP too can cause a sense of fatigue, specifically drowsiness and/or physical exhaustion.  For users who need to stay busy while taking DNP, supplements to increase alertness can help.

 

DNP + Adrafinil:

Adrafinil is an herbal supplement that is converted by the body (via the liver) into modafinil, a light stimulant that promotes wakefulness and attention.  This metabolite is very effective against drowsiness, physical exhaustion, and sleep deprivation; it is commonly prescribed to shift workers, military pilots, emergency responders, and others who need to stay alert around the clock.  150 to 300 mg of adrafinil, taken once or twice per day, can help alleviate any fatigue caused by DNP.

 

Dosing for DNP is discussed here.

 

Learn about the chemistry and action of DNP here.

 

Click here to read more about DNP and calorie consumption.

 

To read more about the effects of DNP on different bodybuilding diets, click here.

 

Read about workouts to preserve lean mass here.

 

Continue Reading...
  • DNP IS DANGEROUS! PLEASE ADVISE YOUR PHYSICIAN BEFORE USING IT.
    THIS WEB SITE'S ONLY PURPOSE IS TO SHARE KNOWLEDGE BETWEEN EXPIRIENCED DNP USERS TO MIMIMIZE SUBSTANCE HARM.
    WE DO NOT TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY OF YOUR ACTIONS: BE THAT FAT LOSS OR SUDDEN DEATH.

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